icon-    folder.gif   Conference Reports for NATAP  
  21st Conference on Retroviruses and
Opportunistic Infections
Boston, MA March 3 - 6, 2014
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Low Bone Mineral Density is Associated with Increased Risk of Incident Fracture in HIV-infected Adults "highlighting the potential value of DEXA screening in this population"......median age 42[35-48]....36% osteopenia/2.9% osteoporosis
  Reported by Jules Levin
CROI 2014 March 3-6 Boston, MA
L Battalora1, K Buchacz2, C Armon3, ET Overton4, J Hammer5, P Patel2, JS Chmiel6, K Wood3, JT Brooks2, B Young7,8, and the HIV Outpatient Study and SUN Study Investigators
1Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; 2Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA; 3Cerner Corporation, Vienna, VA; 4University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL; 5Denver Infectious Disease Consultants, Denver, CO; 6Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL; 7APEX Family Medicine, Denver, CO; 8International Association of Providers of AIDS Care, Washington DC
Although the prevalence of both low bone mineral density (BMD) and bone fractures are increased among HIV-infected adults compared with the general population, no study has yet characterized their causal association in the context of HIV infection.
Methodology: We analyzed available dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) values of the hip (left femoral neck) and clinical data collected prospectively during 2004-2012 from two CDC-sponsored HIV cohort studies, the HOPS and the SUN Study. We assessed factors associated with low BMD (osteopenia or osteoporosis, defined by T-scores of -1.0 to >-2.5, and ≤ -2.5, respectively), using the Jochkheere-Terpstra test for ordered alternatives for continuous variables and the Cochran-Armitage test for categorical variables. We analyzed the association of low BMD with subsequent incident fractures using Cox proportional hazards regression.
Results: Among 1008 patients (median age 42 [interquartile range (IQR) 35-48] years, 83% male, 67% non-Hispanic white, median CD4+ cell count [CD4] 408 cells/mm3 [IQR 254-598]), 36.3% (n=366) had osteopenia and 2.9% (n=29) osteoporosis. During 5,032 person-years of observation after DEXA scanning, 95 incident fractures occurred, predominantly rib/sternum (n=18), hand (n=17), foot (n=15) and wrist (n=11). Low BMD was significantly (p<0.05) associated with age, lower nadir CD4, history of fracture, and male-male sex HIV transmission risk.
In unadjusted analyses, age, current or prior tobacco smoking, hepatitis C co-infection, history of fracture, and low BMD (osteopenia or osteoporosis) were significantly associated with increased hazard of a new fracture. In multivariable analyses, only osteoporosis (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 3.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.47-6.30) and age (aHR 1.35 per 10 years, 95% CI 1.07-1.70) remained associated with incident fracture.
Conclusions: In a large convenience sample of relatively young HIV-infected adults in the U.S., low baseline BMD and increasing age were strongly associated with elevated risk of incident fracture, highlighting the potential value of DEXA screening in this population.