Amgen Announces Positive Top-Line Results From Phase 3 GLAGOV Imaging Study Of Repatha® (Evolocumab)
First Study to Demonstrate That Lowering LDL Cholesterol With a PCSK9 Inhibitor Impacts Underlying Atherosclerotic Disease on top of Optimized Statin Therapy
Intravascular Ultrasound Study Meets Primary and Secondary Endpoints
Detailed Results to be Presented at AHA Scientific Sessions 2016
THOUSAND OAKS, Calif., Sept. 20, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- Amgen (NASDAQ:AMGN) today announced that the Phase 3 GLAGOV (GLobal Assessment of Plaque ReGression with a PCSK9 AntibOdy as Measured by IntraVascular Ultrasound) trial evaluating the effect of Repatha® (evolocumab) on coronary artery disease (CAD) met its primary and secondary endpoints. The GLAGOV study is a large serial coronary intravascular imaging trial designed to test whether treatment with the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor Repatha modifies atherosclerotic plaque build-up in the coronary arteries of patients already treated with optimized statin therapy.
Detailed results from the Phase 3 GLAGOV trial will be presented during the upcoming American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions 2016 on Tuesday, Nov. 15, 2016, between 10:45 a.m. - noon CST.
"We are pleased with the positive results of this landmark study showing that Repatha modifies the underlying process of atherosclerosis," said Sean E. Harper, M.D., executive vice president of Research and Development at Amgen. "We strongly believe in the potential of Repatha to aid in the fight against cardiovascular disease, and we are excited to share these data with the scientific community at the AHA Scientific Sessions."
GLAGOV is a Phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the impact of Repatha, a PCSK9 inhibitor, on coronary atheroma volume in 968 patients with CAD receiving optimized statin therapy and undergoing coronary catheterization. Patients were randomized to receive either monthly Repatha 420 mg or placebo subcutaneous injections.
No new safety concerns were identified in the GLAGOV trial. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was comparable among both groups.
Harper continued, "Atherosclerosis is the major underlying cause of cardiovascular disease, which remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Now one year after the FDA approved Repatha, nearly two-thirds of patients prescribed Repatha are still being denied access. We are concerned that many patients with uncontrolled LDL cholesterol levels continue to face challenges in accessing a medicine that we now know has a positive impact on plaque burden."
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide.1 In the U.S., there are approximately 11 million people with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and/or familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) who have uncontrolled levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) over 70 mg/dL, despite treatment with statins or other cholesterol-lowering therapies.2,3 More than 60 percent of high-risk patients in Europe are still unable to adequately lower their LDL-C levels with statins or other currently approved lipid-lowering agents.4 Among very high-risk patients, the percentage is increased to more than 80 percent.4 It is estimated that less than one percent of people with FH (heterozygous and homozygous forms) in most countries are diagnosed.5
GLAGOV Study Design
GLAGOV (GLobal Assessment of Plaque ReGression with a PCSK9 AntibOdy as Measured by IntraVascular Ultrasound) is a Phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial designed to evaluate the effect of Repatha on the change in burden of CAD in 968 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization and on optimized background statin therapy. Patients were randomized 1:1 into two treatment groups to either receive monthly Repatha 420 mg or placebo subcutaneous injections. The primary endpoint was change in percent atheroma volume (PAV) from baseline to week 78 compared to placebo, as determined by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). IVUS is a high-resolution imaging tool that allows for the quantification of coronary atheroma in the coronary arteries.
Secondary endpoints included PAV regression (any reduction from baseline); change in total atheroma volume (TAV) from baseline to week 78; and regression (any reduction from baseline) in TAV.
About Repatha® (evolocumab)
Repatha® (evolocumab) is a human monoclonal antibody that inhibits proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). Repatha binds to PCSK9 and inhibits circulating PCSK9 from binding to the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR), preventing PCSK9-mediated LDLR degradation and permitting LDLR to recycle back to the liver cell surface. By inhibiting the binding of PCSK9 to LDLR, Repatha increases the number of LDLRs available to clear LDL from the blood, thereby lowering LDL-C levels.6
The FOURIER outcomes trial is designed to evaluate whether treatment with Repatha or placebo on top of optimized statin therapy, reduces the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with clinically evident atherosclerotic disease. The trial completed patient enrollment in June 2015. The primary endpoint for the FOURIER trial is major cardiovascular events defined as the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina or coronary revascularization. The key secondary end point is the composite of cardiovascular death, MI or stroke. The trial is planned to continue until at least 1,630 patients experience the secondary endpoint, thereby providing 90 percent power to detect a relative reduction of 15 percent in this endpoint. Top-line results from the approximately 27,500-patient event-driven FOURIER study are anticipated in the first quarter of 2017.
Repatha is approved in more than 40 countries, including the U.S., Japan, Canada and in all 28 countries that are members of the European Union. Applications in other countries are pending.
Important U.S. Product Information
Repatha® is indicated as an adjunct to diet and:
⋅Maximally tolerated statin therapy for treatment of adults with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) or clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), who require additional lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)
⋅Other LDL-lowering therapies (e.g., statins, ezetimibe, LDL apheresis) in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) who require additional lowering of LDL-C
The effect of Repatha® on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has not been determined.
The safety and effectiveness of Repatha® have not been established in pediatric patients with HoFH who are younger than 13 years old.
The safety and effectiveness of Repatha® have not been established in pediatric patients with primary hyperlipidemia or HeFH.
Important U.S. Safety Information
Contraindication: Repatha® is contraindicated in patients with a history of a serious hypersensitivity reaction to Repatha®.
Allergic reactions: Hypersensitivity reactions (e.g. rash, urticaria) have been reported in patients treated with Repatha®, including some that led to discontinuation of therapy. If signs or symptoms of serious allergic reactions occur, discontinue treatment with Repatha®, treat according to the standard of care, and monitor until signs and symptoms resolve.
Adverse reactions: The most common adverse reactions (>5% of Repatha® -treated patients and more common than placebo) were: nasopharyngitis, upper respiratory tract infection, influenza, back pain, and injection site reactions.
In a 52-week trial, adverse reactions led to discontinuation of treatment in 2.2% of Repatha® -treated patients and 1% of placebo-treated patients. The most common adverse reaction that led to Repatha® treatment discontinuation and occurred at a rate greater than placebo was myalgia (0.3% versus 0% for Repatha® and placebo, respectively).
Adverse reactions from a pool of the 52-week trial and seven 12-week trials:
Local injection site reactions occurred in 3.2% and 3.0% of Repatha® -treated and placebo-treated patients, respectively. The most common injection site reactions were erythema, pain, and bruising. The proportions of patients who discontinued treatment due to local injection site reactions in Repatha® -treated patients and placebo-treated patients were 0.1% and 0%, respectively.
Allergic reactions occurred in 5.1% and 4.7% of Repatha® -treated and placebo-treated patients, respectively. The most common allergic reactions were rash (1.0% versus 0.5% for Repatha® and placebo, respectively), eczema (0.4% versus 0.2%), erythema (0.4% versus 0.2%), and urticaria (0.4% versus 0.1%).
Neurocognitive events were reported in less than or equal to 0.2% in Repatha®-treated and placebo-treated patients.
In a pool of placebo- and active-controlled trials, as well as open-label extension studies that followed them, a total of 1,988 patients treated with Repatha® had at least one LDL-C value <25 mg/dL. Changes to background lipid-altering therapy were not made in response to low LDL-C values, and Repatha® dosing was not modified or interrupted on this basis. Although adverse consequences of very low LDL-C were not identified in these trials, the long-term effects of very low levels of LDL-C induced by Repatha® are unknown.
Musculoskeletal adverse reactions were reported in 14.3% of Repatha® -treated patients and 12.8% of placebo-treated patients. The most common adverse reactions that occurred at a rate greater than placebo were back pain (3.2% versus 2.9% for Repatha® and placebo, respectively), arthralgia (2.3% versus 2.2%), and myalgia (2.0% versus 1.8%).
Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia (HoFH): In 49 patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia studied in a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 33 patients received 420 mg of Repatha® subcutaneously once monthly. The adverse reactions that occurred in at least 2 (6.1%) Repatha®-treated patients and more frequently than in placebo-treated patients, included upper respiratory tract infection (9.1% versus 6.3%), influenza (9.1% versus 0%), gastroenteritis (6.1% versus 0%), and nasopharyngitis (6.1% versus 0%).
Immunogenicity: Repatha® is a human monoclonal antibody. As with all therapeutic proteins, there is a potential for immunogenicity with Repatha®.
Please contact Amgen Medinfo at 800-77-AMGEN (800-772-6436) or 844-REPATHA (844-737-2842) regarding Repatha® availability or find more information, including full Prescribing Information, at www.amgen.com and www.Repatha.com.
About Amgen Cardiovascular
Building on more than three decades of experience in developing biotechnology medicines for patients with serious illnesses, Amgen is dedicated to addressing important scientific questions to advance care and improve the lives of patients with cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide.1 Amgen's research into cardiovascular disease, and potential treatment options, is part of a growing competency at Amgen that utilizes human genetics to identify and validate certain drug targets.
Through its own research and development efforts, as well as partnerships, Amgen is building a robust cardiovascular portfolio consisting of several approved and investigational molecules in an effort to address a number of today's important unmet patient needs, such as high cholesterol and heart failure.
Amgen is committed to unlocking the potential of biology for patients suffering from serious illnesses by discovering, developing, manufacturing and delivering innovative human therapeutics. This approach begins by using tools like advanced human genetics to unravel the complexities of disease and understand the fundamentals of human biology.
Amgen focuses on areas of high unmet medical need and leverages its expertise to strive for solutions that improve health outcomes and dramatically improve people's lives. A biotechnology pioneer since 1980, Amgen has grown to be one of the world's leading independent biotechnology companies, has reached millions of patients around the world and is developing a pipeline of medicines with breakaway potential.
For more information, visit www.amgen.com and follow us on www.twitter.com/amgen.
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1. World Health Organization. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) fact sheet. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs317/en/ Accessed August 2016.
2. Amgen Data on File.
3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vital signs: prevalence, treatment, and control of high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. United States, 1999-2002 and 2005-2008. MMWR. 2011;60(4):109-14.
4. Halcox JP, et al. Low Rates of Both Lipid-Lowering Therapy Use and Achievement of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Targets in Individuals at High-Risk for Cardiovascular Disease across Europe. PLoS One. 2015;10(2).
5. Nordestgaard BG, Chapman MJ, Humphries SE, et al. Familial Hypercholesterolaemia is Underdiagnosed and Undertreated in the General Population: Guidance for Clinicians to Prevent Coronary Heart Disease. Eur Heart J. 2013;34:3478-3490.
6. Repatha® U.S. Prescribing Information. Amgen.