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Adipose Tissue [belly, subcutaneous] and HIV infection / Fat Tissues - Belly, Periphery - and HIV - reservoir for HIV, Inflammation, hypertension, body changes
  from Jules: I just distributed 2 studies reporting association between boosted PIs implicating more likely RTV component in causing hypertension in HIV+ and causing metabolic disturbances, and that body changes both increased belly fat and lipoatrophy - fat loss in periphery - contribute to hypertension, and that d4T use was associated with body change and hypertension:"aging implicated - body composition, involving both abdominal obesity and stavudine-induced peripheral lipoatrophy, might contribute to the higher prevalence of hypertension in HIV-1-infected patients.....Our results suggest a role for both abdominal fat accumulation and peripheral lipoatrophy in the pathophysiology of hypertension in the context of HIV." - Higher Prevalence of Hypertension in HIV-1-Infected Patients on Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Is Associated With Changes in Body Composition and Prior Stavudine Exposure - (06/08/16)........
HIV protease inhibitors activate the adipocyte renin angiotensin system - PIs/Hypertension/Metabolics/ARBs prevent effect - (06/08/16)
Renin-angiotensin system......Therenin-angiotensin system(RAS) or therenin-angiotensin-aldosterone system(RAAS) is ahormone systemthat regulatesblood pressureandfluid balance.......If the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is abnormally active, blood pressure will be too high. There are many drugs that interrupt different steps in this system to lower blood pressure. These drugs are one of the primary ways to control high blood pressure (hypertension),heart failure,kidney failure, and harmful effects ofdiabetes.[4][5]........https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renin-angiotensin_system
HIV+ Fat Tissue is a HIV Reservoir & Inflammation Occurs
Within the Fat Tissue due to HIV........
"Long-term, this type of viral reservoir is a potential source of new infection"......"If you were to stop HIV medicines in the individual," said Hunt, "then the viruses in the fat are actually capable of restarting the infection.".....http://www.natap.org/2015/HIV/093015_01.htm
Adipose Tissue Is a Neglected Viral Reservoir and an Inflammatory Site during Chronic HIV and SIV Infection.....http://www.natap.org/2015/HIV/092515_04.htm
During HIV infection, the inflammatory profile of adipose tissue has been revealed by the occurrence of lipodystrophies (primarily related to ART). Data on the impact of HIV on the SVF (especially in individuals not receiving ART) are scarce. We first analyzed the impact of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection on abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in SIVmac251 infected macaques and found that both adipocytes and adipose tissue immune cells were affected. The adipocyte density was elevated, and adipose tissue immune cells presented enhanced immune activation and/or inflammatory profiles. We detected cell-associated SIV DNA and RNA in the SVF and in sorted CD4+ T cells and macrophages from adipose tissue. We demonstrated that SVF cells (including CD4+ T cells) are infected in ART-controlled HIV-infected patients. Importantly, the production of HIV RNA was detected by in situ hybridization, and after the in vitro reactivation of sorted CD4+ T cells from adipose tissue. We thus identified adipose tissue as a crucial cofactor in both viral persistence and chronic immune activation/inflammation during HIV infection. These observations open up new therapeutic strategies for limiting the size of the viral reservoir and decreasing low-grade chronic inflammation via the modulation of adipose tissue-related pathways.
Adipose Tissue [belly, subcutaneous] and HIV
HIV-infected cells are present in adipose tissue samples from ART-treated, a viremic patients



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