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HIV Causes Aging In HIV & Contributes to the Onset Prematurelly & in Greater Rates of Comorbidities
Causes of Accelerated Aging in HIV: HIV Induces Aging of T-Cells
• Biological age measured by 10 biomarkers was an average 13.2 years older than chronological age in 134 people with HIV studied in Europe......http://www.natap.org/2017/CROI/croi_171.htm
• Compared with HIV-negative controls, people with HIV had more mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in postmortem brain samples......
The Newcastle-Wellcome team concluded that brains of people with HIV have more mtDNA damage than brains of HIV-negative people, indicated both by lower mtDNA content and more mtDNA deletion mutations. They underlined the finding that mtDNA damage did not correlate with use of mitochondria-toxic nucleosides, in contrast to findings of mitochondrial toxicity in sites outside the brain. mtDNA content did correlate with markers of HIV disease activity (lower CD4 count, higher plasma load), findings the researchers believe are consistent with virally mediated neuronal damage.
• Mitchondrial damage from HIV itself, from ARTs, from earlier ARTs.....http://www.natap.org/2018/CROI/croi_79.htm
• "It is generally accepted that oxidative mitochondrial decay is a major contributor to aging."....http://www.natap.org/2008/HIV/100908_01.htm
• Smoking and High HIV Viremia Damage Mitochondrial DNA and May Accelerate mtDNA Aging ... ..http://www.natap.org/2019/IAS/IAS_113.htm
• Accelerated, Premature Immunosenescence..
• In the setting of HIV disease, this process is accelerated, resulting in an immunosuppressed state that diminishes the ability of the immune system to contain virus while at the same time facilitating viral replication and spread
• Opioid or Cocaine Use causes brain damage
strategies need to be developed specifically to prevent or reverse the accumulation of senescent cells or rejuvenate senescent T cells by repairing their functional defects...
our data suggest that HIV-1 pathogenesis involves an accelerated aging of both naive CD4+ T cells and memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.....the accelerated immunological aging observed in chronic HIV-1 infection, especially in those with an advanced disease status, may be a consequence of continuous HIV-1 infection and a multitude of other antigens and is best reflected by our assessment of the general T-cell population
"HIV-1 infection induces premature aging of both memory T cells and naive CD4+ T cells; in particular, the fast progressors (FPs) experience accelerated aging of lymphocytes.....Whether highly active antiretroviral therapy can reverse or retard this process is not yet clear and needs to be investigated, although 1 study has shown that accumulation of aged T cells continues in highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated patients with increased CD4+ T cells and long-term viral suppression....
HIV, Drug & Alcohol Use Cause Bran
HIV infection itself may confer a heightened risk of accelerated brain aging, potentially exacerbated by HCV coinfection and substance dependency. Confirmation would require a prospective study with a preinfection baseline.

The HIV-infected cohort exhibited steeper declining volume trajectories than control subjects, consistently in the frontal cortex. Nonaccelerated volume deficits occurred in the temporal, parietal, insular, and cingulate regions of all three diagnostic groups. Alcohol and drug dependence comorbidities and HCV coinfection exacerbated HIV-related volume deficits.
study quantified regional brain volumes from 1101 magnetic resonance imaging scans collected over 14 years in 549 participants (25 to 75 years of age): 68 HIV-infected individuals without alcohol dependence, 60 HIV-infected individuals with alcohol dependence, 222 alcohol-dependent individuals, and 199 control subjects.
Increased Metabolic Rate May Lead to Accelerated Aging - due to HIV -

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