icon-    folder.gif   Conference Reports for NATAP  
  Conference on Retroviruses
and Opportunistic Infections
February 12-16, 2022
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  CROI 2022 Feb 11-16
"Among 5482 HIV-infected women treated at conception, virally suppressed at delivery, and not breastfeeding, no case of perinatal transmission was observed: (0/5482, 95% CI [0-0.07]) - virtually eliminating in this group and this context the risk for perinatal transmission."
Jeanne Sibiude1, Jerome Le Chenadec2, Laurent Mandelbrot1, Alexandre Hoctin2, Catherine Dollfus3, Albert Faye4, Eida Bui5, Emmanuelle Pannier Metzger6, Jade Ghosn7, Valerie Garrait8, Veronique Avettand-Fenoël9, Pierre Frange9, Josiane Warszawski2, Roland Tubiana10, for the ANRS-EPF Study Group
1Hopital Louis-Mourier, Colombes, France, 2Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Le Kremlin-Bicetre, France, 3Trousseau Hospital, Paris, France, 4Robert–Debre Hospital, Paris, France, 5Saint-Antoine Hospital, Paris, France, 6Cochin Hospital, Paris, France, 7Hopital Bichat-Claude-Bernard, Paris, France, 8Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal de Creteil, Creteil, France, 9Necker Hospital, Paris, France, 10Hopitaux Universitaires Pitie Salpêtrière, Paris, France
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is remarkably effective to prevent perinatal transmission (PT) of HIV-1. We sought to evaluate the transmission rate in population in a context of generalized ART before conception.
The analysis included 17,673 women/infant pairs - HIV-1-infected mothers- delivering from 2000 to 2017 in centers participating in the nationwide prospective multicenter French Perinatal Cohort (ANRS-EPF). 37 breastfeeding, 280=stillbirths, termination of pregnancy or fetal loss. 1138-Non-metroplitan France. 14,630 children included in analysis. PT was analyzed according to time period, timing of ART initiation, plasma viral load (pVL) in the first trimester of pregnancy and at delivery, and gestational age at birth. No woman breastfed in our cohort.
The proportion of women receiving combined ART at delivery increased from 67.7% in 2000-2005 to 97.7% in 2006-2010, and 99.2% in 2011-2017 (p<0.001), as did the proportion of those already on ART before conception (28.3% in 2000-2005 vs 65.8% in 2011-2017, p<0.001) and the proportion of women treated from conception with pVL below limit of quantification (BLOQ) or <50 copies/mL near delivery (70% in 2000-2005, 89% in 2006-2010, 93% in 2011-2017 (p<0.001)).
PT decreased from 1.1% in 2000-2005 (58/5,123), to 0.7% in 2006-2010 (30/4600), and 0.2% in 2011-2017 (10/4907; p<0.001).
Restricting the analysis to women on ART at conception, PT decreased from 0.42% in 2000-2005 (6/1434), to 0.03% in 2011-2017 (1/3117), p=0.007 (Table).
Among women treated at conception, whatever the type of ART combination, no PT was observed if maternal pVL was BLOQ or <50 copies/mL near delivery (0/5482, 95% CI [0-0.07]).
In this cohort, there was no case of PT if the 1st trimester viral load was BLOQ or < 50 copies/mL (0/2358), 95%CI [0-0.16].
In the overall population, PT rate was higher following severe preterm deliveries (<32WG) 2.06%, than in moderate preterm (32WG-36WG) 1.34%, or in term deliveries 0.54% (p<0.001). However, this association was not found in 2011-2017, where a higher proportion of women were virally suppressed from the first trimester.
In the absence of breastfeeding, and in the French context of free access to ART and monthly pVL assessment suppressive ART initiated before pregnancy and continued throughout the pregnancy can eliminate perinatal transmission of HIV. The challenge is now to improve early engagement and sustained adherence in health care systems.